Reverse Engineering Firmware: Linksys WAG120N

The ability to analyze a firmware image and extract data from it is extremely useful. It can allow you to analyze an embedded device for bugs, vulnerabilities, or GPL violations without ever having access to the device.

In this tutorial, we’ll be examining the firmware update file for the Linksys WAG120N with the intent of finding and extracting the kernel and file system from the firmware image. The firmware image used is for the WAG120N hardware version 1.0, firmware version 1.00.16 (ETSI) Annex B, released on 08/16/2010 and is currently available for download from the Linksys Web site.

The first thing to do with a firmware image is to run the Linux file utility against it to make sure it isn’t a standard archive or compressed file. You don’t want to sit down and start analyzing a firmware image only to realize later that it’s just a ZIP file:

OK, it’s nothing known to the file utility. Next, let’s do a hex dump and run strings on it:

Taking a look at the strings output, we see references to the U-Boot boot loader and the Linux kernel. This is encouraging, as it suggests that this device does in fact run Linux, and U-Boot is a very common and well documented boot loader:

However, taking a quick look at the hexdump doesn’t immediately reveal anything interesting:

So let’s run binwalk against the firmware image to see what it can identify for us. There are a lot of false positive matches (these will be addressed in the up-coming 0.3.0 release!), but there are a few results that stand out:

Binwalk has found two uImage headers (which is the header format used by U-Boot), each of which is immediately followed by an LZMA compressed file.

Binwalk breaks out most of the information contained in these uImage headers, including their descriptions: ‘u-boot image’ and ‘MIPS Linux-2.4.31’. It also shows the reported compression type of ‘lzma’. Since each uImage header is followed by LZMA compressed data, this information appears to be legitimate.

The LZMA files can be extracted with dd and then decompressed with the lzma utility. Don’t worry about specifying a size limit when running dd; any trailing garbage will be ignored by lzma during decompression:

We are now left with the decompressed files ‘uboot’ and ‘kernel’. Running strings against them confirms that they are in fact the U-Boot and Linux kernel images:

We’ve got the kernel and the boot loader images, now all that’s left is finding and extracting the file system. Since binwalk didn’t find any file systems that looked legitimate, we’re going to have to do some digging of our own.

Let’s run strings against the extracted Linux kernel and grep the output for any file system references; this might give us a hint as to what file system(s) we should be looking for:

Ah! SquashFS is a very common embedded file system. Although binwalk has several SquashFS signatures, it is not uncommon to find variations of the ‘sqsh’ magic string (which indicates the beginning of a SquashFS image), so what we may be looking for here is a non-standard SquashFS signature inside the firmware file.

So how do we find an unknown signature inside a 4MB binary file?

Different sections inside of firmware images are often aligned to a certain size. This often means that there will have to be some padding between sections, as the size of each section will almost certainly not fall exactly on this alignment boundary.

An easy way to find these padded sections is to search for lines in our hexdump output that start with an asterisk (‘*’). When hexdump sees the same bytes repeated many times, it simply replaces those bytes with an asterisk to indicate that the last line was repeated many times. A good place to start looking for a file system inside a firmware image is immediately after these padded sections of data, as the start of the file system will likely need to fall on one of these aligned boundaries.

There are a couple interesting sections that contain the string ‘sErCoMm’. This could be something, but given the small size of some of these sections and the fact that they don’t appear to have anything to do with SquashFS, it is unlikely:

There are some other sections as well, but again, these are very small, much too small to be a file system:

Then we come across this section, which has the string ‘sqlz’ :

The standard SquashFS image starts with ‘sqsh’, but we’ve already seen that the firmware developers have used LZMA compression elsewhere in this image. Also, most firmware that uses SquashFS tends to use LZMA compression instead of the standard zlib compression. So this signature could be a modified SquashFS signature that is a concatination of ‘sq’ (SQuashfs) and ‘lz’ (LZma). Let’s extract it with dd and take a look:

Of course, ‘sqlz’ is not a standard signature, so the file utility still doesn’t recognize our extracted data. Let’s try editing the ‘sqlz’ string to read ‘sqsh’:

Running file against our modified SquashFS image gives us much better results:

This definitely looks like a valid SquashFS image! But due to the LZMA compression and the older SquashFS version (2.1),  you won’t be able to extract any files from it using the standard SquashFS tools. However, using the unsquashfs-2.1 utility included in Jeremy Collake’s firmware mod kit works perfectly:

Now that we know this works, we should go ahead and add this new signature to binwalk so that it will identify the ‘sqlz’ magic string in the future. Adding this new signature is as easy as opening binwalk’s magic file (/etc/binwalk/magic), copy/pasting the ‘sqsh’ signature and changing the ‘sqsh’ to ‘sqlz’:

Re-running binwalk against the original firmware image, we see that it now correctly identifies the SquashFS entry:

And there you have it. We successfully identified and extracted the boot loader, kernel and file system from this firmware image, plus we have a new SquashFS signature to boot!

Tagged , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

110 Responses to Reverse Engineering Firmware: Linksys WAG120N

  1. Max says:

    Awesome! Great read.

  2. Denis says:

    Very nice tutorial, thank you !

  3. Coder says:

    Will repost on my blog

  4. two55309 says:

    very cool! I would be interested in seeing the reverse as well. Making a new firmware file

  5. Gi0 says:

    Great reading!!
    I agree with two55309, i d also love to read more about editing the firmware

  6. Heremite says:

    Great post! Congrats! Looking forward for more about editing the firmware.

  7. alex says:

    I also would be interested in seeing the reverse of this.(building firmware image)

  8. Click170 says:

    Awesome tutorial! Thankyou!
    +1 for reverse tutorial?

  9. Slie says:


  10. Michael says:

    Fantastic post! I had always wondered about how this was done, but could never find a good resource.

    I wish to add my +1 for a further post in this series, possibly detailing the reverse of this as others have suggested.

    Many thanks!

  11. Pingback: Reverse engineering a firmware |

  12. Craig says:

    Thanks for the feedback everyone! It sounds pretty unanimous – a tutorial on building a firmware image will have to be next. :)

  13. Pingback: Reverse engineering embedded device firmware - Hack a Day

  14. Pingback: Reverse engineering embedded device firmware | You've been blogged!

  15. wak says:

    Excellent tutorial! You describe this in a way that makes it seem very easy. I look forward to reading what you write next.

  16. s3c says:

    Really good work, hope to see more of these in the future, for other platforms perhaps? :)

  17. Thank you for your detailed explanation, followed all the steps and it worked pretty nicely.

  18. I like this and I’m thinking about putting this on my blog as a linkback.

  19. Aaron says:

    Wow, great! Thanks for sharing your wisdom with the world!

  20. Adam Baxter says:

    What do I do when the firmware (e.g. has some kind of checksum at the end? This makes re-packing it quite tricky.

  21. gamegod says:

    This is a great tutorial! I had never heard of binwalk before, seems like a really handy tool for embedded work. Thanks for sharing!

  22. Pingback: Ingeniería inversa en firmware, un ejemplo práctico | CyberHades

  23. Joseph says:


    I’ve gotten up to the part where unsquashfs-lzma. I’ve downloaded the Firmware Modification Kit, and compiled with make. Then I’ve taken the unsquashfs-lzma and put it in the same directory as my firmware file. Upon running it:
    >./unsquashfs-lzma wag120.squashfs
    >Reading a different endian SQUASHFS filesystem on wag120.squashfs
    >zlib::uncompress failed, unknown error -3
    >Bus error

    Any help?

  24. Zhukov says:

    By far one of the best tutorials I’ve seen.

    Very well done!

    Thank you for all the effort you had on putting this altogether!

  25. Jim says:

    Great info, congrats by me also!!
    Tried to follow your tut on a Thomson 585v7 firmware. Binwalk unfortunately cant recognise anything in the .bin file. Is it because of no signature for it in the magic file or it has to do something with the bin file?
    Keep up the good work and please do post an editing the firmware tutorial

  26. john says:

    Great detail tut
    thank you thank you

  27. Pingback: links for 2011-05-31 « xtra’s blog

  28. Nold says:

    Hey, thanks a lot for this article! Love it!

  29. Ricardo says:

    This was such an informative read.


  30. Ralph Corderoy says:

    I skimmed the article and see what’s going on but I couldn’t be bothered to click on one thumbnail after another of a terminal only to see text, e.g. of a command and its output. :-(

    Don’t you think it would be a much more readable, and Googleable, article if the text of the screenshots was presented as text in the article and none of the images existed?

  31. 80) says:

    >GPL violations
    GPL is The Cancer

  32. Axelle says:

    Nice post ! Very interesting. Found anything interesting in the SquashFS image?

    BTW, I do however agree with Ralph you could lighten the screenshots or just put the commands inline with 😉

  33. Rafael Bracho says:

    I truly appreciate the article, it will be bookmarked for future reference. Unlike Ralph Corderoy, I especially liked the screen shots, as they allow one to see exactly how the different commands are invoked and what their outputs are. Once again, thanks, kudos!

  34. Just great dude! I started messing with firmware modding and penetration testing on embedded devices and this tutorial gave me a good boost…

  35. Rogan Dawes says:

    sercomm was not a total dead end, by the way:

  36. Craig says:

    @Adam Baxter:

    If there’s a checksum in the firmware you’ll have to determine where the checksum is and what checksum algorithm is used. Haven’t looked at the ZIP file you linked to yet, but if there’s GPL code available for the device that that’s usually the easiest way to figure it out. Also look to see if open source projects like OpenWRT or DD-WRT (since you didn’t mention what this device is I’m assuming it’s a router!) have done any work on it. I plan on covering firmware mods in more detail in a later tutorial.


    The unsquashfs error you’re getting looks like you are using the standard version of unsquashfs instead of the lzma version. Are you sure you’re running the correct unsquashfs binary from the firmware mod kit source?

    @ Jim:

    I haven’t looked at the Thomson routers before. If you aren’t getting any results from binwalk then it didn’t find any known signatures in the file. What kind of output do you get from running strings? If there are few readable strings then I would suspect the firmware (or part of it) is compressed. Try running binwalk with the -a option; this will use all signatures and will result in a lot of false positive matches but may help you find some gzip or other compressed data in the firmware.

    @ Ralph/Axelle:

    I started writing the tutorial by just copy/pasting the text, but felt that the screenshots made the commands and their output much easier to follow. I agree though that having to click back and forth is a pain – I’ll be sure to have future pictures viewable inline with the text!

    @Rogan Dawes:

    I did Google Sercomm and found that link too, but since it wasn’t related to the filesystem I was looking for and wasn’t the object of the tutorial I skipped over it. Good point though that I should have mentioned in the tutorial – always Google odd strings in the firmware!

  37. Binwalk compilation errors for Mac OSX – Could you please tell me how could I install libmagic for mac. Sorry for naive question but I couldn’t find source on the web.


  38. Craig says:

    Chintan: I did look for libmagic for OSX, but couldn’t find it. Linux only I’m afraid. If you find a port for OSX thought, let me know!

  39. Craig says:


    Yes, a quick skim through firmware found the hard coded SSL public/private key pair for the HTTPS server. Another one for LittleBlackBox!

  40. powertomato says:

    Great post!

    @Chintan Parikh
    Try compiling the library:

  41. Craig says:

    powertomato: Have you tried building against that libmagic library? It doesn’t look like it’s compatible with the libmagic library binwalk is built against.

  42. Gi0 says:


    Also tried your instructions on a Thomson 585v7 UK firmware (Download link of bin file: Strings cant get anything usefull (link: and binwalk with the -a switch seems to get too much info (i m guessing false positive, as you mentioned.
    If you have any time to provide any ideas/steps to get pass this, i would gladly try to provide signatures for Thomson firmwares for binwalk.
    Once again, thank you for your tutorial and time!

  43. Craig says:

    Gi0: I don’t see anything obvious in that firmware image, but given the size and the layout of the firmware update file, I’d be surprised if it’s Linux based.

    Given the lack of nearly any strings, I’d say that aside from the header (the first few bytes look like they are “magic” bytes for the firmware header) the firmware image is probably compressed, but nothing that I recognize.

    Thomson apparently has its own boot loader, at least for that model, so it’s possible that there could be a custom compression algorithm. See more here:

    Do you have physical access to one of these routers? Getting to the jtag/serial ports will likely give you a lot more information.

  44. Pingback: Reverse Engineering Firmware « Yet Another Technology Blog

  45. Gi0 says:

    I have access to a couple of those routers, thank you for the tip and also for the link you provided!

  46. Rulzwrld says:

    This is an amazing article. The next part is definitely inevitable.

  47. Hacker Harry says:

    simple, yet effective.
    nice read.

  48. An interesting article.
    Binwalk is definitely something I’ll be making use of in the future.
    Also the method for searching for section starts using the padding in the image was crafty :)

  49. Mendel says:

    Great article! I’ll try to do the same with TP-Link firmwares. For now, binwalk showed me the image is “Linux Journalled Flash filesystem, little endian”

  50. powertomato says:

    No I didn’t try it… It’s not compatible – my bad! Sorry!
    AFAIK libmagic is an optional part of posix so there is a good chance that the .so library file is somewhere on the MacOS system.

  51. ret says:

    Is there an active place to chat about reversing firmware or an active binwalk community?

  52. Craig says:

    ret, is a good place to start. Focuses on x86 reversing, but there is also some embedded discussions there too.

  53. Lou says:

    I’m actually having an odd issue. I tried to strip the latest firmware from linksys’ site like you did with dd with the exact same command. However when I try to decompress with lzma I get the error : lzma: uboot.lzma: Compressed data is corrupt. Currently, I’m using this version of lzma: xz (XZ Utils) 4.999.9beta
    liblzma 4.999.9beta. What version are you using?

  54. Craig says:

    My lzma version is:

    LZMA command line tool 4.32.0beta3
    LZMA SDK 4.43

    It’s the lzma utility in Ubuntu, so maybe it’s a different version from what you are using? I would expect any lzma decompression tool to handle the file though, it should just be standard lzma compression.

    Are you sure you did the dd command correctly and got the ‘bs’ and ‘skip’ parameters correct? What does the file utility report the uboot.lzma file to be?

  55. Mack says:

    I am having the same problem.

    lzma –version
    xz (XZ Utils) 5.0.3
    liblzma 5.0.3

    file uboot.lzma
    uboot.lzma: LZMA compressed data, non-streamed, size 147212

    looks like an lzma/xz bug

    Excellent article by the way :)

  56. Mack says:

    Ah, I figured out the problem. XZ Utils supersedes LZMA Utils.

    ‘LZMA Utils
    LZMA Utils are legacy data compression software with high compression ratio. LZMA Utils are no longer developed, although critical bugs may be fixed as long as fixing them doesn’t require huge changes to the code.

    Users of LZMA Utils should move to XZ Utils. XZ Utils support the legacy .lzma format used by LZMA Utils, and can also emulate the command line tools of LZMA Utils. This should make transition from LZMA Utils to XZ Utils relatively easy.’

    I downloaded the old LZMA Utils source, compiled and ran that version of lzma and everything was happy.

    compiled ./lzma –version
    LZMA command line tool 4.32.7
    LZMA SDK 4.32

  57. Jim Wang says:

    There are quite a few Chinese wireless routers, with 2mb rom, 16MB ram and atheros chips. They are all in Chinese. I was trying to figure out if I could install openwrt, when I found it was not possible, I was thinking if I could turn them into English. Using binwalk and other techniques mentioned here, I was unable to even find out what OS and file system it uses. Is it possible to extract html files from this rom image and modify them and repack them? The bin file is in this archive.

    strings and hexdump shows the file names in plain text. Don’t know how to extract them.

  58. Pingback: /dev/ttyS0 » Blog Archive » Mystery File System

  59. Craig says:


    See the above track back. I was able to at least partially reverse the file system from the router firmware.

  60. Alex HQuest says:

    I am a bit late on the topic, but Linksys does provide source code for the previous 1.00.12 firmware on their website. Using that and a Linux machine to compile the source, I believe it may be easier to play around with this router. Plus, easier to enable all other incomplete/missing features, like IPv6, VPN, and the blessed telnet access to the device.

  61. Craig says:


    Good point, GPL source code is always helpful when reversing/playing with firmware. Unfortunately, source code isn’t always available or complete, so knowing how to take a firmware update apart is useful in those situations.

    I really just picked out the WRT120N as an example after seeing someone else on the Web who had been trying unsuccessfully to take apart the firmware. :)

  62. dddanmar says:

    Just wanted to leave a note to say thank you! I’ve been having some problems with a YeaLink VoIP phone which runs Linux. Was able to use binwalk and gzip to extract the files required and was able to debug through the problem.

    Very helpful post!!

  63. Recep says:

    I need your thoughts on decrypting Bravia Linux Firmware.

    I used binwalk to anylse the file and got that:

    root@ubuntu:/home/user/İndirilenler/binwalk-0.3.9/src# binwalk fw.bin
    binwalk: /usr/local/lib/ no version information available (required by binwalk)

    3485529 0x352F59 bzip2 compressed data, block size = u00k
    23646804 0x168D254 bzip2 compressed data, block size = S00k
    24439192 0x174E998 BFLT executable version 3698180314, code offset: 0xD0DBFC89, data segment starts at: 0xFC57E3C8, bss segment starts at: 0x314AD91C, bss segment ends at: 0x579AC36E, stack size: -209315630 bytes, relocation records start at: 0x10C36FC1, number of reolcation records: 1388897630, gotpic gzdata
    32409668 0x1EE8844 bzip2 compressed data
    40790549 0x26E6A15 gzip compressed data, ASCII, has CRC, extra field, last modified: Sat Dec 8 07:18:40 2012
    41683215 0x27C090F bzip2 compressed data
    44487229 0x2A6D23D bzip2 compressed data, block size = X00k

    But I can not move further. Could you please help me with that?

  64. Recep says:

    Sorry I forgot to post the firmware itsef. It is here:

    And the source files Sony provided:

  65. Pingback: Reverse Engineering Firmware: Linksys WAG120N

  66. Pintas says:

    I have a zynos firmware here, i want to extract it but i got a error @Decode error

    What means lzma Decode error


  67. Craig says:


    It most likely means that the data you have is not lzma compressed.

  68. Pintas says:

    Thanks for the answer :)
    It worked it was my error Craig. I probably now have the kernel. The file extracted with lzma -d:

    I cant find the filesystem. I tried to extract with firmware kit but not worked.

    I have acess to the serial port of the router, can you point a link of what i can do with the serial port to extract the kernel.

    Thanks in advance

    Sorry my english

  69. Craig says:

    Well that depends on the underlying OS.

    If the device runs Linux then it’s pretty easy: the /prod/mtd file will list all the mtd partitions and their names. One will likely be named ‘kernel’ or something similar. you can then read the kernel directly from /dev/mtdblockX (where X is the mtd number listed in /proc/mtd).

    If it is running some other proprietary system, then who knows. But most of them provide at least basic mechanisms to view configuration data and read/write to memory/flash, so if you can figure out where the kernel is on flash or in RAM then you might be able to dump it though the serial port.

  70. Pingback: Reverse Engineer Firmware | Pattonwebz Info

  71. Jimbo says:

    Hey, I’m attempting this with the Annex A version of the firmware. I get up to the step where you find the FS but searching the kernel for filesystem strings doesn’t return anything that I could identify as a FS (though my knowledge is fairly limited).

    Any tips on where to go from here?

    Heres the output in case it helps:
    preboot=echo;echo Type “run flash_nfs” to mount root filesystem over NFS;echo
    update_rootfs=tftpboot 80400000 $(root_filesystem);upgrade 80400000 $(filesize)


  72. Heya i am for the first time here. I found this board and I to find It really helpful & it helped me out much. I am hoping to offer something back and help others like you aided me.

  73. двп says:

    You could definitely see your skills in the paintings you write. The world hopes for even more passionate writers like you who aren’t afraid to say how they believe. At all times follow your heart.

  74. Festor says:

    How can i extract the firmware of Linksys WRT120N?
    The only thing i can do is extracting the lzma compressed PFS.IMG file (file system similar to 3COM/SMC not linux based) located at
    945152 0xE6C00 LZMA compressed data, properties: 0x5D, dictionary size: 8388608 bytes, uncompressed size: 1348080 bytes
    Binwalk output gives a lot of false positives.


  75. George says:

    Awsome, Thanks!!!

  76. subin says:

    Nice hack information. Can i quote this article in my website.

    Let me as i need more authentic content and i will mention your source.

  77. Mitsos says:

    First of all great tutorial!
    I have an assigment for my master in router reverse engineering. Is there a way to emulate a router like
    linksys wag120N? I don’t have the router and I would like
    to test some of these great tips. Searching google I
    found qemu and virtualbox, but I can’t find a tutorial
    on how I can virtualize a router.
    Thank you in advance!!!!!!!!!!!

  78. SLB says:

    Hi, great tutorial! Is there a reverse tutorial available to create the firmware back from what achieved in this tutorial? Thank you

  79. Ankush Jain says:


    I tried to follow your steps to reverse engineer my router’s firmware. Binwalk easily pointed the SquashFS file system to me.

    “1180160 0x120200 Squashfs filesystem, little endian, version 4.0, size: 626964223 bytes, 538 inodes, blocksize: 0 bytes, created: Fri Dec 15 19:34:48 1989”

    It starts with “hsqs” and seems to employ lzma compression.
    I tried using various “firmware modding tools”, but even the unsquash-lzma tool, on compiling, gave the following error:-

    “Can’t find a SQUASHFS superblock on router.sqashfs”

    The other unsquashfs tools refused, citing lack of lzma support. Can you help me out? I’ve googled a lot and found no solutions.

    • Craig says:

      Have you tried the various unsquashfs tools in the firmware mod kit as well? It has a couple different variations on the squashfs 4.0 utilities that may work for your firmware.

  80. Pingback: Reverse Engineering Firmware | Alan Carvalho de Assis

  81. jason says:

    how to extact frimware from a device…say modem or mobile!

  82. Tom says:

    is anybody actually planning to write a complete new firmware so our nightmare WAG120N turns into good old Tplink ??

  83. max says:

    I was just wondering if there is an easy way to convert the ascii-output from an firmware dump into a regular data/bin file? I’m trying to dump the firmware from an embedded linux device using the “dump” command in the redboot bootloader via a serial connection.

    • alemv says:

      Something like:
      1. First see flash mtd partitions
      ~ # ls -al /dev/m*

      brw-rw—- 1 root 0 31, 0 Jan 1 1970 /dev/mtdblock0
      brw-rw—- 1 root 0 31, 1 Jan 1 1970 /dev/mtdblock1
      brw-rw—- 1 root 0 31, 2 Jan 1 1970 /dev/mtdblock2
      brw-rw—- 1 root 0 31, 3 Jan 1 1970 /dev/mtdblock3
      brw-rw—- 1 root 0 31, 4 Jan 1 1970 /dev/mtdblock4
      Then dump each block to main PC like 0033455A etc
      ~ # hexdump -v -e ‘1 1 “%02X”‘ /dev/mtd0

  84. Pingback: YAWN … and TV Firmware… | Vote4Katz YAWN … and TV Firmware… | Katz's Blog

  85. Pingback: Модификация на фирмуера

  86. nic says:

    Thank you for this post, really interesting stuff. I have a silly question, could you please explain how you calculated those arguments that you gave to skip(for dd)? What skip does, by the way, is to start reading from X sector on the file, thus, you use this value to jump to a specific byte on the firmware binary, correct?

    So to sum up: How do you calculate from which block to which block you need to extract something out of the firmware binary?

    Thank you.

    • Craig says:

      Don’t be thrown off by the terminology “block”. This has nothing to do with hard drive blocks or sectors or anything like that; this is just setting the “block” size used internally by the dd software.

      For example, when dd’ing the LZMA compressed kernel out of the firmware image, I specified a block size of 1 byte and told dd to skip 196672 blocks, because that LZMA file was located 196672 bytes into the firmware image. I could just as well have specified a block size of 196672 and told dd to skip 1 block (which is actually more efficient and faster, but perhaps a bit less intuitive).

  87. Agueda says:

    If it is possible to make your individual perfect cup of joe every time, you’ll not be tempted order your daily brew in the local coffeehouse.
    Store the beans in dark cool places, not where it
    really is hot and exposed to light. Either way, you can not get a better made drip coffee machine for
    THIS price.

  88. close2 says:

    You can work around the lzma issue:
    The error: lzma: uboot.lzma: Compressed data is corrupt
    is because xz doesn’t ignore the trailing garbage.

    simply do: lzma -d uboot
    lzma (xz) will go into stream mode and not check the size / end of uboot.lzma

  89. close2 says:

    ok, part of the command was eaten :(

    lzma -d uboot

  90. close2 says:

    I am a little bit surprised that greater than and less than signs are eaten _inside_ code blocks.

    lzma -d LESS_THAN uboot.lzma GREATER_THAN uboot

  91. revsec says:

    fantastic read. Thats one for the favorites. I dont want to miss a tutorial by these genius.
    I hope with all my heart that you write more about the discovery of exploitation for Embedded Systems.
    I have a question is how to reverse engineer that exist within the router such as TP-Link router
    I have repeatedly tried to do that through (), but the program did not accept the file and did not recognize it at all
    Is there another way to do it is there Loader for this special formats or what I hope mentioned

  92. revsec says:

    fantastic read. Thats one for the favorites. I dont want to miss a tutorial by these genius.
    I hope with all my heart that you write more about the discovery of exploitation for Embedded Systems.
    I have a question is how to reverse engineer that exist within the router such as TP-Link router
    I have repeatedly tried to do that through (ida pro 6.1 and ida pro 6.4), but the program did not accept the file and did not recognize it at all
    Is there another way to do it is there Loader for this special formats or what I hope mentioned

  93. Sarim Khan says:

    Excellent guide ! I was able to extract cfe booloader, linux kernel and squashfs filesystem from a DLink 2750u russian router firmware image.
    But both lzma and unsquashfs gave me error, but 7z was able to extract both.
    Also 7z has a plugin system so if the corresponding libraries is present is system then 7z can extract a very wide varity of images. So anyone can try 7z, it’ll make the steps of detection easy.

    Now i’m trying to figure out how to discard the bootloader and create a firmware flash image using only kernel and filesystem. I dont want to replace the bootloader in the device :)

  94. Everyone loves what you guys tend to be up too. This sort of clever work and coverage!
    Keep up the fantastic works guys I’ve added you guys
    to blogroll.

    Here is my web page … Newsletter Writing (

  95. Pingback: Reverse Engineering Firmware | whisper bytes

  96. Pingback: Reversing Firmware: general approach | Penetration Testing

  97. Alvaro says:

    Hi !
    Do you know where I can find information about “capturing” a firmware update between the computer and the device ? ?
    I have a watch I have to update using the company software that is installed in my computer. This software gets the update from internet and send it to the watch using an usb cable.

    I have tried to use wireshark to see the communications between the company software and the web, but it looks like there is a ssl connection made to transfer the file. So I think I have nothing to do there.

    I was wondering if there is possible to capture the update from the usb, when the update takes place. Or if there is a software or terminal command to check where does the company software place the update in my computer …

    Thanks !!!

  98. Carl says:

    Can you help with a firmware file for a camera.

  99. karthik says:

    can someone explain how the skip = 11076… etc values are decided while using the dd command for extracting

  100. ronit yadav says:

    when i try to extract lzma file i get this error SetDecoderProperties() error …please help me …

    • Craig says:

      Try using the p7zip utility to extract the LZMA file. I’ve found the ‘lzma’ Linux utility is very picky about which LZMA files it works with. Also, the integrated LZMA extractor built into binwalk should work fine too (just run binwalk with the -e option).

  101. ronit yadav says:

    Hey Craig thanks alot :) …it worked but now i encounter another error, when i try to load the (.bin) file in IDA PRO it prompt an error message “ida failed to load the start address automatically” any solution ?? plz help me

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *